永利皇宫官网《Big History》_3

永利皇宫官网 1

作者:Wernher von Braun
出版社:University of Illinois Press
发行时间:October 一st 一玖六一 (original public by 1九5三)
来源:下载的 pdf 版本
Goodreads:4.0(37 Ratings)

The formation of the solar system

NASA has recorded eerie space “sounds.”

永利皇宫官网 2

When our star forms, its immense gravitational pull sucked 99.99% of all
the matter in the solar system. Our sun formed over the course of about
100,100 years in what called Solar Nebula. Then the nebular compress to
a star, probably triggered by nearby supernova. Mercury, Venus, Earth
and Mars it’s cold enough for volatile gasses to hang around and even
become liquids and solids. That’s why the inner planets like us are
rocky, and the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are
these humongous gas giants. Pluto don’t act like a planet. So…



The Mars Project is a technical specification for a manned expedition to
Mars. It was written by von Braun in 1948 and was the first “technically
comprehensive design” for such an expedition. The book has been
described as “the most influential book on planning human missions to

At first, the earth is a molten ball. The heave elements sank to the
core. And the lighter elements like silica form the mantle. Light
element floated and form the crust. “HADEAN ERA”

NASA uses a technique called data sonification to take signals from
radio waves, plasma waves, and magnetic fields and convert them into
audio tracks to “hear” what’s happening in space. The sounds range from
ambulance-like screeches to beeps reminiscent of an alien spaceship
making its approach.


Wernher von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German, later
American, aerospace engineer, and space architect. He was the leading
figure in the development of rocket technology in Germany and the father
of rocket technology and space science in the United States.
In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Nazi Germany’s
rocket development program. He helped design and develop the V-2 rocket
at Peenemünde during World War II. Following the war, von Braun was
secretly moved to the United States, along with about 1,600 other German
scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip.

Some day, the earth get crashed. The debris clumped together and became
the Moon.



因为前些天有 Falcon Heavy 的测试发射,所以想到那本书,就翻了弹指间,作者Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun
most influential book on planning human missions to 马尔斯」

SpaceX 那样的商号如今在带头

As the earth cool down, the water vapor accumulated in the atmosphere
fell into torrential rains. The downpour lasts millions of years, which
created the first ocean about 3.8 billion years ago.

Sunsets on Mars are blue.


The algorithm of spaceflight laid out step-by-step in the terse lines of
Wernher von Braun’s Mars Project displays the logic that seventeen years
later carried astronauts to the Moon. Humans have always dreamed of
travel to other worlds . The g real rocket pioneers-Tsiolkovsky, Oberth,
Goddard, Tsander, von Braun, Korolev, and others-were inspired by the
prospect of interplanetary voyages . They sold (and oversold) other
applications of rockets, but their real motivation was always
From boyhood, Wernher von Braun envisioned voyages to other worlds. He
once told me that it was the gift of a telescope that turned his young
eyes skyward and pointed his career toward the stars. As a teenager in
pre-World War II Berlin, he joined a group of enthusiastic amateurs
designing innovative systems and defining technical breakthroughs
required for interplanetary flight. While pursuing his engineering
education, he applied his expanding knowledge to the development of
critical components for liquid fuel rockets. Recurring, spectacular
explosions punctuated these pioneering experiments.
As war clouds gathered, the innovative young engineer was recruited by
Captain Walter Dornberger, a thirly-five-year-old artillery officer
ordered to build long-range military rockets in lieu of the aircraft
prohibited to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. Despite his youth,
von Braun soon became the technical leader of the group and proposed
moving the growing enterprise to Peenemünde, an island in the Baltic Sea
where his father had hunted ducks.
The space age can be said to have begun on October 3, 1942, with the
flight of von Braun’s first A-4 (V-2) missile. This 46.1-foot-high,
single-stage rocket with a 2,200-pound payload was propelled at 3,500
miles an hour for 200 miles by an alcohol-liquid oxygen engine capable
of developing 56,000 pounds of thrust. V-2 bombardment of London was
throttled by Allied armies invading Germany, but not until 1,054 rockets
had struck England between September 8, 1944, and March 27, 1945
Meanwhile, von Braun survived fleets of Allied bombers that devastated
the test complex; he also survived arrest by the Gestapo for defeatist
statements about Germany’s chances of winning the war Charged with
advocating the building of interplanetary spacecraft instead of military
weapons, he spent two weeks in a prison cell in Stetten in March 1944.
In February 1945, von Braun Fled Peenemünde ahead of the advancing Red
Army He led his battered rocket team southwest with crates of rocket
data; on May 2, 1945, they surrendered to advancing American troops near
Reutte, Austria. Finding the German team remarkably cooperative, the
U.S. Army transported 115 of the captured experts and 100 V-2s to New
Mexico to continue rocket development and high-altitude research. Von
Braun, like Moses, led his expatriates through the desert toward a
distant promised land.
In the course of his subsequent experimental work, von Braun took a
fresh look at interplanetary Flight based upon his rocket team’s
cumulative experience in Germany and the United States. Ten years after
the first V-2 rocket Flight, he published his classic Das Marsprojekt in
a special issue of the magazine Weltraumfahrt. This work also appeared
in 1952 as a slim volume, Das Marsprojekt: Studie einer
interplanetarischen Expedition, which was translated and published in
1953 as The Mars Project, which in turn stimulated a series of popular
articles in Collier’s magazine. Chesley Bonestell’ s dramatic
illustrations of future space shuttles, space stations, astronaut-tended
space telescopes, and interplanetary spacecraft voyaging to Mars
inspired a generation of young people to technical careers that could
help make spaceflight a reality.
Von Braun’s seventy-person Mars expedition included a fleet of forty-six
space shuttles of 39-ton lift capacity (NASA’s space shuttles lift 20
tons to orbit) . With a turnaround time of 10 days (NASA’s shuttles
require 75-125 days), these reusable vehicles could make 950 flights to
orbit in eight months, allowing for six vehicles being continually out
of service. This would require 5.32 million tons of fuel costing around
$500 million, which von Braun equated to ten times the high-octane
aviation gasoline burned in the six months of the Berlin airlift. The
result would be ten fully fueled spaceships, each weighing 3,720 metric
tons, ready to depart Earth’s orbit in the plane of the ecliptic on a
260-day voyage to Mars.
While von Braun’s team was working in the United States, Helmut Grottrup
and his engineers were transferring V-2 technology to Soviet teams led
by Sergei Korolev, Valentin Glushko, and others. Stalin was particularly
impressed by Eugen Sanger and Irene Bredt’ s plans for an antipodal
bomber capable of attacking America; this conceptual design of an
aerospace plane resembled a huge piloted V-2 with wings. He directed
that the highest priority be given to intercontinental ballistic missile
(ICBM) development and atomic bombs. New launch complexes were built at
Kapustin Yar and Tyuratam to test increasingly powerful Soviet rockets.
Impelled by technical advances and the intensifying cold war , ICBM
development went into high gear in 1954 on both sides of the Iron
Curtain . The resulting advances in rocketry led scientists organizing
the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to propose that artificial
satellites be launched in 1957
Moscow’s response to the IGY proposal was the Commission for
Interplanetary Tran sport (ICIC) within the Soviet Academy of Sciences.
Led by the academician Leonid Sedov, ICIC’ s bold mission was to develop
robotic spacecraft for interplanetary flight . On July 29 and 30 , 1955
, both Washington and Moscow announced plans to launch satellites during
the IGY The navy’s Project Vanguard carried the banner for the United
States, Sergei Korolev led the Soviet ICBM/Satellite launcher Program.
The latter’s team successfully flew the first R-7, Semyorka (“Good Old
Number Seven”), two years later, on August 3, 1957
On October 4, a Soviet R-7 launched the 184-pound Sputnik into orbit.
Americans were shocked by this spectacular achievement, but they should
not have been; not only had Moscow announced its intentions, but von
Braun’s U.S. team had been ready to launch a small satellite since 1956
(its proposal was shelved in favor of the navy project). On November 3,
Moscow celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the Russian Revolution in
spectacular style by rocketing the 6-ton Sputnik II into orbit. The
payload included an 1, 121-pound capsule with geophysical equipment,
telemetry, and a life-support system for the canine cosmonaut Laiko,
whose presence clearly presaged human spaceflight. In response to
American charges that German experts were behind the Soviet
achievements, Nikita Khrushchev smilingly pointed out that the United
States had most of the experts and then asked why von Braun’s team was
not able to launch an American satellite.
A nationwide television audience watched the U.S. Navy ‘s heralded
Vanguard rocket explode and collapse on the launch pad on December 6 .
This embarrassing fiasco, after dazzling Soviet achievements, prompted
Washing ton to give the eager von Braun and his team the green light to
launch a satellite with their Jupiter Crocket. OnJanuary31 , 1958,
America’s 10.5-pound Explorer I soared into orbit with two
micrometeoroid detectors, a Geiger counter, and telemetry. At less than
l percent of the weight of Sputnik II, the miniaturized instruments on
board nevertheless returned more valuable scientific information by
discovering and mapping the Van Allen radiation belt that surrounds
On the advice of President Eisenhower’s Science Advisory Committee, and
after a thoughtful review of alternative courses, on April 14 the U.S.
Congress passed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (S. 3609;
H.R. 11881), this farsighted piece of legislation created the civilian
NASA. America’s fledgling space agency organized itself around the
predecessor National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Naval
Research Laboratory’s Vanguard team, and two groups transferred from the
army : von Braun’s Redstone Arsenal team at Huntsville, Alabama, and the
Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Pasadena, California . In the Soviet Union,
rapid progress continued as new payloads weighing up to 6,500 pounds
were launched. Khrushchev sneered that America would have to launch a
lot of orange-sized sputniks to catch up.
On April 12, 1961, Yury Alekseyevich Gagarin blazed a human trail into
orbit aboard Sergei Korolev’s Vostok I (“The East”). His dramatic
spaceflight captured the imagination of the world and called into
question American technology and leadership . The Kennedy
administration, smarting under Fidel Castro’s success at the Bay of
Pigs, resolved to gain the lead in space and explored three alternative
programs to achieve this goal. An orbiting space station was rejected as
too easily within Soviet capabilities, and an expedition to Mars was
judged too difficult to accomplish with in a decade. A land ing on the
Moon appeared to be an achievable project that would challenge NASA in
all areas of spaceflight and establish America as the preeminent
spacefaring nation.
The projected $20 billion cost of a lunar landing ($70 billion in 1990
dollars) would boost NASA’s peak 1965 budget to 0.78 percent of the
gross national product (GNP), but the alternative of surrendering space
leadership appeared unthinkable . Four months after Gagarin ‘s flight,
the Berlin Wall was erected, while Red Army tanks patrolled Eastern
European capitals and the Soviet Union’s shoe-pounding premier
threatened at the United Nations to bury the West. Washington saw a
threat to world peace from military adventurism by Kremlin leaders
miscalculating the relative technological strengths of the superpowers .
Although no American had yet flown in orbit, on May 25, 1961 , President
Kennedy asked a cheering Congress to direct NASA to land astronauts on
the Moon within the decade .
The national goal of a lunar landing within eight years challenged the
U.S. aerospace enterprise across the entire spectrum of technologies .
NASA administrator James E. Webb drew from government, industry, and
university circles to create a superb management team that operated on a
semiwartime footing . Ninety percent of the Apollo budget was spent
outside the space agency as 400,000 Americans across the country were
attracted to NASA’s open program and inspiring goals.
Von Braun led Eberhardt Rees, Kurt Debus, and other key Peenemiinde
engineers in a fast-paced project to develop the essential heavy-lift
launch vehicle: a giant three-stage, 363-foot rocket called the Saturn V
The first stage of this unprecedented booster developed 7.5 million
pounds of thrust from five mighty F-1 kerosene-liquid oxygen engines
burning 15 tons of fuel per second (the fuel pumps alone had greater
horsepower than the turbines driving the new ocean liner Queen
Elizabeth). The two liquid hydrogen-liquid oxygen upper stages lifted
120 tons of payload into orbit for the 240,000-mile voyage to the Moon .
NASA’s conceptual systems design group adopted an innovative Lunar Orbit
Rendezvous concept that substituted electronic docking prowess for brute
rocket power A giant new launch complex was built at Cape Canaveral, a
new manned spaceflight center was constructed at Houston, a worldwide
tracking network was created, and new industrial and university research
facilities were established across the country
As the end of the 1960s approached, precursor robotic missions were
launched to characterize the lunar surface, and every spaceflight system
and component was tested and retested. The impetus of Project Apollo’s
purposeful activities spurred many parallel developments, from Mariner
spacecraft missions to Venus and Mars to the creation and spin-off of
valuable global weather and communications satellite systems.
On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Mike Collins flew the
historic Apollo 11 mission that touched down on the lunar Sea of
Tranquility-on time and within budget . Their footprints on the Moon’s
ancient surface record humanity’s first steps toward a multi planet
civilization . National jubilation and worldwide acclaim greeted
America’s triumph. By initiating human exploration of the Moon through
NASA’s open civilian space program, Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and
congressional leaders had made the United States the preeminent
spacefaring nation. To von Braun, this achievement marked the next step
in the evolution of life. He equated astronauts crossing space to
explore the Moon to the first marine life learning to live on land.
Apollo 11 was a boyhood dream come true, a beacon lighting the way to
our future as a multiplanet species.
Because of his outstanding ability to envision the future, I asked von
Braun to join me at NASA headquarters in Washington to help plan
America’s post-Apollo program. In 1969 President Nixon appointed a Space
Task Group to explore manned spaceflight alternatives, including a large
orbiting space station, continuing lunar exploration, and a long-range
mission to Mars. Von Braun contributed to all these plans but none were
pursued; the “Moon Race” was won, and national attention had turned
elsewhere. The divisive Vietnam conflict made high-tech programs
suspect, and science education came to be seen as elitist. With no
future U.S. manned mission in prospect, Saturn Vproduction was
terminated and the space program slumped back to a third of its 1960s
peak. At the same time American universities experienced a steady
decline in young people pursuing graduate work in science and
Dissatisfied with NASA’s aimlessness, in 1985 Congress created the
Presidential National Commission on Space to look thirty years into the
future and recommend long-range goals for America’s civilian space
program . The commission’s final report, Pioneering the Space Frontier,
proposed to the president and Congress a balanced, future-oriented
program . The overarching recommendation was that America “lead the
exploration and development of the space frontier, advancing science,
technology and enterprise, and building institutions and systems that
make accessible vast new resources and support human settlements beyond
Earth’s orbit, from the highlands of the Moon to the plains of Mars.”
This was the goal anticipated by von Braun’s classic Mars Project. On
the twentieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, President Bush
delivered a historic address at the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum.
Standing before the Wright brothers’ 1903 Flyer, Lindbergh’s 1927 Spirit
of Saint Louis, and the 1969 spaceship Columbia in which Apollo 11
astronauts flew to the Moon, the president directed NASA to prepare
plans for an orbiting space station, lunar research bases, and human
exploration of Mars. The 500th anniversary of Columbus’s discovery of
the new world will see that world setting sail for other new worlds
across the ocean of space.
Von Braun watched the first humans explore the Moon, and he knew that
among our children are the first explorers of Mars. As interplanetary
travel becomes increasingly feasible and affordable in the twenty-first
century, the expansion of life outward from its earthly cradle will
become an enduring international goal. Space exploration and settlement
will be accelerated by exponentially growing world economies, decreasing
superpower confrontation, continuing advances in science and technology,
and advancing spaceflight experience. Human intelligence is destined to
activate the evolution of life on other worlds.
It is thus Fitting that I close with Wernher von Braun’s clear vision of
the next century.
Only a miraculous insight could have enabled the scientists of the
eighteenth century to foresee the birth of electrical engineering in the
nineteenth. It would have required a revelation of equal inspiration for
a scientist of the nineteenth century to foresee the nuclear power
plants of the twentieth. No doubt, the twenty-first century will hold
equal surprises, and more of them. But not everything will be a
surprise. It seems certain that the twenty-first century will be the
century of scientific and commercial activities in outer space, of
manned interplanetary flight, and the establishment of permanent human
footholds outside the planet Earth.

The study will deal with a flotilla of ten space vessels manned by not
less than 70 men. Each ship of the flotilla will be assembled in a
two-hour orbital path around the earth, to which three-stage ferry
rockets will deliver all the necessary components such as propellants,
structures, and personnel. Once the vessels are assembled, fueled, and
“in all respects ready for space,” they will leave this “orbit of
departure” and begin a voyage which will take them out of the earth’s
field of gravity and set them into an elliptical orbit around the sun.
At the maximum solar distance of this ellipse which is tangent to the
Martian orbit, the ten vessels will be attracted by the gravitational
field of Mars, and their rocket motors will decelerate them and swing
them into a lunar orbit around Mars. In this they will remain without
any thrust application until the return voyage to earth is begun.
Three of the vessels will be equipped with “landing boats” for descent
to Mars’s surface. Of these three boats, two will return to the
circum-Martian orbit after shedding the wings which enabled them to use
the Martian atmosphere for a glider landing. The landing party will be
transshipped to the seven interplanetary vessels, together with the
crews of the three which bore the landing boats and whatever Martian
materials have been gathered. The two boats and the three ships which
bore them will be abandoned in the circum-Martian orbit, and the entire
personnel will return to the earth-orbit in the seven remaining
interplanetary ships. From this orbit, the men will return to the earth
‘s surface by the upper stages of the same three stage ferry vessels
which served to build and equip the space ships.

In 1492 Columbus knew less about the far Atlantic than we do about the
heavens, yet he chose not to sail with a flotilla of less than three
ships, and history tends to prove that he might never have returned to
Spanish shores with his report of discoveries had he entrusted his fate
to a single bottom. So it is with interplanetary exploration: it must be
done on the grand scale. Great numbers of professionals from many walks
of life, trained to co-operate unfailingly, must be recruited . Such
training will require years before each can fit his special ability into
the pattern of the whole. Aside from the design and construction of the
actual space vessels, tons of rations, water, oxygen, instruments,
surface vehicles and all sorts of expeditionary equipment will be
required. The whole expeditionary personnel, together with the inanimate
objects required for the fulfillment of their purpose, must be
distributed throughout a flotilla of space vessels traveling in close
formation, so that help may be available in case of trouble or
malfunction of a single ship. The flotilla will coast for months on end
along elliptical paths and will require intership visiting,
necessitating the use of “space boats.” Obviously an ample supply of
spare parts and repair equipment cannot be omitted.

The Plate Tectonics.



words sentence
slide rule The author did the work in his spare time and his sole computational tool was a slide rule
air drag its reentry into the atmosphere and ensuing deceleration through air drag
touchdown re-entry into the atmosphere to zero-speed touchdown on the Earth
solar flares radiation hazard posed by cosmic rays, trapped radiation (Van Allen Belt), and solar flares
Atlantic In 1492 Columbus knew less about the far Atlantic than we do about the heavens
walks of life Great numbers of professionals from many walks of life
propellants the use of chemical propellants would require such enormous masses of fuel
circum-tellurian Space ships to reach the circum-Martian orbit and return from it to the circum-tellurian orbit.
nitric acid landing craft are based on hydrazine (N,H,) and nitric acid (HNO,)
en route ferry rockets en route to and from the orbit of departure
suffocate and that they will not freeze to death, nor burn, nor suffocate
weightlessness the effect of weightlessness which exists along all unpowered

he Curiosity Mars rover’s first color photograph of a sunset in 2015
revealed a surprising twist — sunsets on Mars are blue.


NASA said this is because “dust in the Martian atmosphere has fine
particles that permit blue light to penetrate the atmosphere more
efficiently than longer-wavelength colors” like yellow, orange, and red.


Launching things into space is wildly expensive.


Payload specialist and space station engineer Ravi Margasahayam told
Business Insider that each pound of cargo used to cost $10,000 to ship
into space. Prices have skyrocketed since — Orbital Science’s Cygnus
spacecraft’s cargo costs about $43,180 per pound, and SpaceX’s new
carriers about $27,000 per pound.


Business Insider determined that a 16-ounce bottle of water can cost
anywhere between $9,100 to $43,180 to blast into space today.


Space is full of “space junk.”